AT-801 Arctic Infrastructures in a Changing Climate (10 ECTS)

Cabin threatened by coastal erosion, Bjørndalen. Photo: Eva Therese Jenssen/UNIS

Course schedule

2 August 2019
9 September 2019
Autumn semester (August–September), annually.
10 ECTS with AT-301
Letter grade (A through F)
Books: Andersland O. B. and B. Ladanyi (2004): “Frozen Ground Engineering”. McClung D. and P. Schaerer (2006): “The Avalanche Handbook”. Jones Ch. L., J. R. Higgins and R. D. Andrew (2000): “Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program, version 4.0”. Lecture notes.
Fieldwork, ca. NOK 400 (2 days x NOK 200 per overnight stay)
10/20 students (AT-301/801 in total)
Bilingual dictionary between English and mother tongue. Non-programmable calculator
15 April 2019

Course requirements:

Enrolment in a relevant PhD programme. Knowledge in mathematics and physics at master level.

Academic content:

The course is intended for students with interests and background in topics as geotechnics, building materials, dynamics, mechanics and physics. With the observed climate changes with higher temperatures, more precipitation and probably higher storm activity, infrastructures have to be designed for projected climate changes. Settlements in the vicinity of steep slopes will be exposed to increasing risk for slope failures, slides in soil and rock, slush and snow avalanches. The course will trough lectures and field trips focus on recognizing sites and terrain exposed to avalanches and slides, and how to plan and protect infrastructures minimizing damage risk.

Specific topics:

  • Introduction in global warming phenomena, amplification effects in the Arctic
  • Observing and modelling of temperature in the ground, and soil thermal properties
  • Design of infrastructures in the Arctic and in a changing climate
  • Probability and consequences of natural hazards
  • General information about avalanches: types, release mechanisms, snow stability evaluation methods, avalanche protection, snow physics, computer programme for avalanche simulation
  • Field trip devoted to rockfalls and avalanches
  • Field trip devoted to observations of foundation types and frost related damages
  • Planning and design of buildings and structures in snow drift areas

Learning outcomes:

Upon completing the course, the students will:

Understand weather and climate related geological processes and geotechnical aspects connected to planning, design and protection of infrastructures as buildings, roads, bridges and pipelines in a changing Arctic climate. Be able to evaluate uncertainties in climate models and predictions. Have knowledge of the impact of Arctic climate, and amplified climate changes on infrastructures in the Arctic. Understand the influence of various climate effects on natural disasters as snow avalanches and soil slides, and rockfalls. Be able to establish terrain models for critical slopes, chose parameters for and apply numerical models for soil slide and snow avalanche. Have knowledge of the design of buildings and snow drift mitigation structures in snow drift areas, and know the limitations in numerical tools.

Upon completing the course, the students will be able to:

Perform and judge results from risk assessments of natural hazards in  areal planning and design of infrastructure. Apply analytical models for avalanches common numerical simulation programmes for rockfalls and avalanches (e.g., RAMMS).

General competences
Upon completing the course, the students will:

Have proper insight in engineering practice related to Arctic conditions and structures, and how climate change poses amplified and new risks. Understand the limitations of the available computer models for avalanches, slides and rockfalls. Be able to write and present design and engineering reports on such issues.

Learning activities:

The course extends over 6–7 weeks including compulsory safety training, and is run in combination with AT-301.

Learning activities consist of lectures, seminars, two field excursions and fieldwork.

Through lectures students will be introduced to academic content of the course.  Lectures are supplemented with exercises referring to “Anderson and Ladanyi, Frozen Ground Engineering” (2004). Fieldwork reports and a report from the numerical modeling of avalanches must be approved in order to sit the exam.

During field excursions the students will investigate different foundation presented in Longyearbyen and Pyramiden. The students will work in small groups, to train team work skills. Based on observations from field excursions the students shall produce a joint report describing observed foundation types and structural failures cause by lack of maintenance and possibly due to warmer climate, and present this to the class.

Fieldwork on rockfalls and avalanches will take place in proximity of Longyearbyen.  From the fieldwork, each student group shall prepare and present a joint report on evaluation of zones exposed to rock fall and/or avalanche hazards.

Evaluation: 20% of the grade on a personal investigation and report on a course related topic within the expected competence field of the candidate; this will be agreed with the candidate.

For instance it can be a thorough review on terrain mapping and implementation of this in avalance or rockfall modelling programmes, or review on the mathematical and physical basis of the common slide or avalanche simulation programmes. It can also be connected to planning, conduct and reporting of testing of soil mechanical properties or thermal properties in the laboratories, with determination of properties needed for analyses and design.

Total lecture and seminar hours: 50 hours.
Fieldwork: 2 days.
Field excursions: 3 days.

Compulsory learning activities:

Presentation of PhD project, seminars, assignments, fieldwork, field reports, and presentation of these.

All compulsory learning activities must be approved in order to sit the exam.


Method Duration
Percentage of final grade
Personal report on course related topic within the expected competence of the candidate 20%
Written exam 4 hours 80%

Each assessment is graded, and subsequently combined into a single grad. All assessments must be passed in order to pass the course.

Application deadline: 15 April 2019

Cabin in Bjørndalen, threatened by coastal erosion. Photo: Eva Therese Jenssen/UNIS

Cabin threatened by coastal erosion, Bjørndalen. Photo: Eva Therese Jenssen/UNIS

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