AT-331 Arctic Environmental Pollution: Distribution and Processes (10 ECTS)

Longyearbyen Svalbard 2007

ID:
AT-331
CREDITS:
10 ECTS
START DATE:
January 12, 2022
END DATE:
February 23, 2022
COURSE PERIOD:
Spring semester (January–February), annually.
LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION AND EXAMINATION:
English
CREDIT REDUCTION/OVERLAP:
5 ECTS with AT-321 and 10 ECTS with AT-831
GRADE:
Letter grade (A through F)
COURSE MATERIAL:
300 - 350 pages of reading, in addition to some film materials
COURSE COSTS:
Fieldwork, NOK 800-1000 (4-5 days x NOK 200 per overnight stay)
COURSE CAPACITY MIN/MAX:
10/20 students (AT-331/831 in total)
EXAMINATION SUPPORT MATERIAL:
Bilingual dictionary between English and mother tongue. Non-programmable calculator
APPLICATION DEADLINE:
October 15, 2021

INSTRUCTORS:

Øyvind Mikkelsen. Photo: UNIS.
Øyvind Mikkelsen
Adjunct professor, Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

UNIS contact person: Arne Aalberg

Course requirements:

Enrolment in a relevant master programme. Students should have a minimum of 10 ECTS in chemistry, and 7.5 ECTS in mathematics.

Academic content:

Svalbard is located in a remote area of the Arctic in the highest Northern latitude, however it is still well connected to the rest of the world through dynamic atmospheric and marine currents. The Arctic environment receives contaminants from both long-range transport from mainland Europe, North America and Russia, as well as local anthropogenic inputs from such as coal mining. Moreover, the Arctic exhibits unique environmental conditions including long periods of Arctic summer and polar night, extreme temperatures, dry air and strong wind. These particular physical conditions will affect the environmental chemistry of PBTs affecting their persistence (lifetime) and distribution in the Arctic environment. Climate change is expected to play a role, yet unspecified, in this process.

Specific topics:

  • Chemistry of the polar environment.
  • Processes and behavior of Arctic main contaminants.
  • Long distance transportation of persistent organic compounds and black carbon.
  • Trace metal pollution in the Arctic.
  • Mercury in the Arctic environment, sources, occurrence, mechanisms of toxicity and impacts.
  • The real “POPs” defined: persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic (PBT).
  • Arctic conditions that affect “P” and “B” in PBT.
  • Contaminant storage in ice in the Arctic and the effect of a changing climate.
  • The role of particles in Arctic atmospheric contaminant distribution.
  • Black carbon local emissions in relation to fossil fuel and coal burning.
  • Coal dust impacts on snow due to local mining activities.
  • Forecasting and hindcasting movement of contaminants through the Arctic atmosphere: the application of models.
  • Modeling the impact of light absorbing impurities (black carbon, coal dust and biological constituents like snow algae) on local snow albedo.

Learning outcomes:

Knowledge
Upon completing the course, the students will:

  • have basic knowledge of the local and long-range sources of contaminants found in the Arctic
  • have an understanding of the common fate and transportation routes of contaminants found in the Arctic
  • have advanced knowledge including theoretical and practical learning inputs about the main characteristic contaminants found in the Arctic such as trace metals, PAHs and PCBs
  • have detailed knowledge of how physical-chemical processes in the Arctic work differently in the Arctic than at mid-latitude locations
  • understand the difference between different types of atmospheric models
  • have an understanding of how light absorbing impurities influence the chemistry of snow and ice, as well as physical snow and ice properties, such as albedo.

Skills
Upon completing the course, the students will:

  • be able to use the HYSPLIT 4.0 computer model for development of various air mass trajectories
  • have skills in interpreting the results of Lagrangian atmospheric models
  • hold advanced skills in operating passive sampling devices for measuring contaminants in the Arctic environment
  • hold advanced skills in operating various field devices, for collecting and measuring contaminants in different environmental matrices (air, snow, soil)
  • have the ability to analyse light absorbing impurities (such as black carbon and dust) in the field and laboratory, and model the impact on the physical snow albedo
  • be able to apply appropriat eeulerian or lanrangian atmospheric models to studies of atmospheric transport of contaminants
  • be able to apply proper atmospheric sampling systems to support research goals.

General competences
Upon completing the course, the students will:

  • be capable of producing and communicating scientific results, by writing field- and lab reports and a scientific manuscript
  • be able to interpret and discuss about scientific data through different learning platforms such as seminars or play role games
  • learn how to make an animation movie as a tool to communicate about scientific topics.

Learning activities:

The course extends over a period of ca 6 weeks including compulsory safety training, and is run in combination with AT-831.

Fieldwork will include 4 to 5 days of snow sampling from different locations to study both long range atmospheric transported pollutants and local pollutants. Sample areas are selected based on the weather and snow conditions (can include the surroundings of Longyearbyen, Adventdalen, Foxdalen, Sassendalen, Janssondalen, Reindalen, Hiorthhamn, Revneset, Barentsburg). At some sample locations albedo effect is measured in field. Snow samples will be prepared in laboratory for chemical analyses, including physico-chemical parameters (pH, turbidity, conductivity using ISO routines), quantification of mercury and studies of light absorbing impurities (black carbon, coal dust). Samples will also be prepared for further chemical analyses at department of Chemistry at NTNU (Trondheim) for joint student project including digital presentations/animation movie.

The students must prepare a 10 pages manuscript (including text, references, figures and tables) on a chosen research topic. Students must participate in seminars led by other AT-331 students on a topic relevant to AT-331/831.

Total lecture hours: 30 hours.
Modelling (computer) exercises: 6 hours.
Home work: 30 hours.
Student-led seminars: 15 hours.
Laboratory work: Ca. 15 hours.
Fieldwork: 4-5 days.

The content of the course might be subject to changes due to environmental conditions or unforeseen factors.

Compulsory learning activities:

Written reports on field, lab, or modelling exercises as assigned.
All compulsory learning activities must be approved in order to sit the exam.

Assessment:

Method Duration
Percentage of final grade
Research paper manuscript 40%
Digital presentation / animation movie 20 %
Written exam 3 hours 40%

All assessments must be passed in order to pass the course.
Each assessment is graded, and subsequently combined into a single grade. Partial grades for each assessment will be available.

Application deadline: 15 October 2021

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The University Centre in Svalbard
Telephone: +47 79 02 33 00
Student inquiries: study@unis.no
E-mail: post@unis.no / webmaster@unis.no
Address: P.O. Box 156 N-9171 Longyearbyen
Org. no. 985 204 454

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