Enrolment in a relevant master programme. Preference will be given to students that have a background in snow and avalanche science and/or those who are working on a master thesis in snow and avalanche science. Ability to travel (ski/snowboard) in mountainous terrain in harsh environmental conditions is necessary.
This course focuses on developing a theoretical and practical framework for observing, understanding, and mitigating hazards associated with key snow and avalanche processes in Svalbard’s high-Arctic and other snow-covered alpine areas. We will consider how physical processes control the development of seasonal snow covers across a range of temporal and spatial scales with particular emphasis on key processes relevant to Svalbard’s unique environmental setting. Key theoretical components of this course include understanding:
- The accumulation, redistribution, and metamorphism of snow in the seasonal snow cover
- The climatological, meteorological, and topographical controls on snow and avalanche formation
- Release theory and mechanics
- The mechanical, radiative, thermal, and hydrological properties of the snowpack
- The temporal and spatial variability of seasonal snowpacks and the implications of this variability for designing sampling or data acquisition routines
From this scientific framework, this course also emphasizes developing a practical and applied understanding of avalanche hazard mitigation strategies including avalanche hazard mapping, run-out modeling, structural avalanche defense design and implementation, and avalanche forecasting.
This course has a specific focus on developing the skills necessary for safe, efficient, and robust snow and avalanche data collection in harsh winter conditions. Field activities will emphasize the collection of manual snow and avalanche observations to professional international standards and will introduce various modern remote sensing tools, data products, and verification strategies.
Seminars will deal with papers based on relevant field studies to improve the understanding of processes and current best practices. Discussions will concentrate on identifying the critical questions for future snow science research and how procedures might be devised to address these questions.
Upon completing the course, the students will:
- Have a comprehensive understanding of the physical processes influencing the seasonal snow cover and snow avalanche activity
- Understand the key processes and controls on Svalbard’s unique high-Arctic maritime snow avalanche climate
- Have knowledge of modern research techniques and best practice hazard mitigation strategies
- Understand how knowledge gained in this specific snow avalanche setting can be applied to other high-latitude or alpine regions.
Upon completing the course, the students will be able to:
- Safely perform manual snow and avalanche observations to an international standard
- Describe modern snow and avalanche data techniques and plan research using appropriate methodology
- Analyze and assess scientific papers and theoretical approaches to understanding snow and avalanche processes
- Structure and formulate new research questions independently, working with both practical and theoretical snow and avalanche issues
Upon completing the course, the students will:
- Be able to communicate scientifically and professionally about snow and avalanche science
- Be able to safely undertake fieldwork in avalanche terrain under harsh winter conditions
- Have the scientific competency to critically assess data sources and employ modern observation techniques to plan snow and avalanche research activity
- Be able to critically assess various avalanche hazard mitigation strategies
- Be able to apply the techniques, methods, and skills learned in this course to snow cover anywhere in the world
The course extends over 5 weeks including compulsory safety training.
Excursions and fieldwork will emphasize understanding the regional snow and avalanche setting in the mountains around Longyearbyen and developing skills to observe snow and avalanche processes. The fieldwork and excursions will be subject to change based on snow, avalanche, and weather conditions. Fieldwork will be conducted in groups, and each excursion will correspond to a laboratory exercise conducted in the same groups. Reports summarizing these exercises will be submitted throughout the course and will constitute 40% of the final grade.
Total lecture hours: 30 hours (10 of which will be in the field).
Total exercise hours: 20 hours.
Fieldwork or field excursion: 8 days.
Compulsory learning activities:
Fieldwork, field excursions, field and laboratory exercises, scientific paper presentations.
All compulsory learning activities must be approved in order to sit the exam.
Percentage of final grade
|Several reports submitted during the course period||40%|
|Written exam||3 hours||60%|
All assessments must be passed in order to pass the course.
Each assessment is graded and subsequently combined into a single grade. Partial grades for each assessment will be available.